What makes a person crave a plate of Alfredo pasta, or a cup of macaroni and cheese on a cold winter day? It is all in the sauce – the rich, dairy-based sauce that is key to making the perfect comfort food.
Consumers may describe this indulgent texture as “creamy” or “thick” and the Gum Gurus at TIC Gums developed Food Texture Terminology to create a more concrete description of the attributes of an ideal cheese sauce.
|Describing the Texture of Cheese Sauce|
|Texture Attribute||Definition||Examples (Low/High)|
|Surface Wetting||Degree with which sample spreads out and visually adheres to surface of container||water vs corn syrup|
|Mouth Coating||Degree to which mouth surfaces are coated after swallowing or expectorating||water dessert gel vs creamy peanut butter|
|Mouth Clearing||The speed with which the sample clears from the mouth after swallowing or expectorating||creamy peanut butter vs water|
In order to obtain these ideal attributes in cheese-based sauce, the major focus lies on the stabilization of the emulsion between the cheese or oil and the water in the formulation. Emulsification prevents separation of the sauce mixture, a defect that consumers may describe as “separated” or “watery” and consider unappealing.
Some gums are natural emulsifiers, as they contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions that have the ability to stabilize and keep the lipid phase dispersed evenly throughout the water phase, while other gums contribute similar functionality by stabilizing the formulation
In sauce, gums have the ability to enhance the characteristic texture of cheese (high mouth coating ability, slow mouth clearing and increased surface wetting) in addition to preventing separation. Our Gum Gurus recommend the following gum systems that contain tested ratios formulated for specific applications in dairy-based sauces:
|Stabilizers for Cheese Sauce|
|Ticaloid® Ultrasmooth CL||Cold water soluble protein suspender and stabilizer that meets many label claims|
|Caragum 200||A low cost replacement for locust bean gum in sauces|
|Caragum 300 2473||Designed to boost viscosity after heating to 180°F, and is widely used to replace starch in sauces|
|Saladizer Dairy Stabilizer||Provides particulate suspension and cohesive texture with enhanced mouth coating in dairy-based salad dressings and sauces|
|Ticaloid 750||Synergistic with dairy protein to increase viscosity and mouth coating|
|TICorganic Saladizer 100||Emulsifying gum system for use in organic foods|
Water is necessary in order to hydrate gums, which must be fully hydrated to function properly. It is not possible to hydrate gums in a cheese/oil mixture alone. Once properly hydrated, gums are able to prevent phase separation and enhance the texture of the sauce.
In a frozen cheese sauce, the Gum Gurus recommend the following freeze-thaw stable options:
|Stabilizers for Frozen Cheese Sauce|
|Ticaloid 210 S||Provides thickening, suspension, emulsification and cling|
|TIC Pretested® Locust Bean Gum POR/A2 Powder||General thickener that can withstand freeze-thaw cycles|
Retorting a cheese sauce exposes it to extreme temperature and pressure. Due to this process, you should produce a cheese sauce that is slightly more viscous than the final target texture in order to account for the harsh processing conditions that may lead to a thinner product.
Often dairy-free cheese sauces face the same stabilization challenges as dairy-based cheese sauces. Action Gum 1144 Powder is a gum blend that works well in non-dairy sauces. Caragum® 200 or TICorganic® Caragum 200 are products that can work successfully in both non-dairy and dairy sauces.
Guar gum is the most widely used general purpose thickener and texture modifier in the food industry, but it can potentially impart a beany, grassy odor in a cheese sauce. GuarNT® USA Flavor Free 5000 is a reduced odor, medium viscosity guar gum that can be used as a replacement for regular guar gum. Download the white paper
In heated milk applications, xanthan gum can create curdling of dairy proteins. Past research has found that the xanthan macromolecules cause the casein micelles to come out of suspension. The Gum Gurus usually recommend limiting the use of xanthan gum in dairy-based sauce applications.
Caragum 200 or its certified organic version, TICorganic Caragum 200, provides a viscous texture resistant to flow similar to starch but at much lower usage levels does not mask the flavors in the sauce. We have provided an Alfredo recipe that uses Caragum 200 below.